Description:The serum chemistry profile is one of the most important initial tests that is commonly performed on sick or aging animals. A blood sample is collected from the patient. The blood is then separated into a cell layer and serum layer by spinning the sample at high speeds in a machine called a centrifuge. The serum layer is drawn off and a variety of compounds are then measured. These measurements aid the veterinarian in assessing the function of various organs and body systems.
Diagnostic Value: Very high. Sometimes a specific diagnosis may be made on the basis of a blood chemistry profile alone. More often than not, however, the profile provides information on a variety of body organs and systems, giving the doctor an indication of where a problem might be located. The profile can be extremely helpful in determining which of the many other diagnostic tests might be beneficial.
Risks to Patient: Virtually none, provided that the blood is collected under sterile conditions by a trained professional.
Relative Cost: Low.
Normal Ranges: The following is a list of the normal ranges in dogs for some of the major parameters on a chemistry profile:
Glucose: 65-130 mg/dl
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): 7-27 mg/dl
Creatinine: 0.6-1.5 mg/dl
Calcium: 9.0-12.0 mg/dl
Phosphorus: 2.8-6.1 mg/dl
Total protein: 5.3-7.6 g/dl
Albumin: 2.7-4.5 g/dl
Cholesterol: 120-350 mg/dl
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP): 20-150 IU/L
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): 10-120 IU/L
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST): 15-40 IU/L
Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK): 50-250 IU/L
Chloride: 106-127 mEq/L
Potassium: 4.1-5.5 mEq/L
Sodium: 145-159 mEq/L
Refer to the following pages for the interpretation of some of the results found on a blood chemistry.
Interpretation of Results:
- High glucose levels can occur just after a meal, during stressful situations, and with the use of certain drugs. The measurement of glucose is important in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
- Low glucose levels can occur when the animal does not eat, has liver or hormonal problems, or when there is a severe bacterial infection in the bloodstream. Too much insulin will also cause low levels of glucose.
- High levels of BUN may be the result of a high protein diet, dehydration, ulcers in the digestive tract, kidney disease, or blockage of the normal flow of urine (from a kidney or bladder stone, for example).
- Low BUN levels can result from a low protein diet or liver disease.
- High calcium levels may be found in young, fast-growing animals. High calcium levels also occur in some types of cancer, bone disease, parathyroid problems, and kidney diseases. A variety of other conditions may also cause an elevated calcium level.
- Low calcium levels can occur in a lactating female (eclampsia) after giving birth. Low calcium levels are also associated with dietary insufficiencies, parathyroid problems, intestinal problems, and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) poisoning. Other causes also exist.
- High protein levels may result from dehydration, inflammation, some cancers, and infections.
- Low protein levels can occur in situations of malnutrition, intestine absorption problems, blood loss, and kidney or liver disease.
- High cholesterol levels can be associated with high-fat diets, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, Cushing’s disease, liver disease, and kidney problems.
- Low cholesterol levels may occur with low-fat diets, liver failure, digestive and absorption problems, pancreas disease, and with some types of seizure therapy.
- High CK levels can occur in situations where muscles of the body are damaged, diseased, or inflamed. This can even occur with heart muscle problems.
- High ALP levels may indicate a liver problem, some cancers, and increased bone growth or destruction. ALP levels can also be elevated in cases where steroids are administered or in Cushing’s disease where natural steroids are elevated. High levels of ALP are normal in growing puppies.
- High ALT levels occur when the liver is damaged. This damage can occur because of toxins, not enough oxygen, inflammation, metabolic disorders, and other diseases.
- High AST levels occur most often when the muscles and/or the liver are damaged. This damage can occur because of toxins, lack of oxygen, inflammation, metabolic disorders, and other diseases.
- High levels of chloride can occur with dehydration, fluid therapy, and acidosis (where the pH of the body is abnormally low). Some drugs such as phenobarbital can also cause elevated chloride levels.
- Low levels may be the result of vomiting, especially right after eating; and treatment with certain drugs (diuretics such as furosemide).
- High levels are associated with acidosis, Addison’s disease, during certain phases of severe kidney disease, rupture of the urinary bladder, and with some treatments and syndromes.
- Low levels are seen with chronic vomiting and diarrhea, liver disease, Cushing’s disease, certain phases of kidney disease, and administration of some drugs.
- High sodium levels may accompany dehydration, a high salt diet, Cushing’s disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes insipidus.
- Low sodium occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, Addison’s disease, fluid therapy, kidney problems, and hypothyroidism.